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Building shoulder muscles

The shoulders are the most widely used muscle in the upper body in my opinion. They function in almost every action that comes your way. The shoulders have almost 360 degrees of rotation, not to mention the fact that a broad, thick set of shoulders looks impressive on stage—and even better in the eyes of the ladies.

Shoulders are an important muscle, so why is it that so many people can’t seem to develop a thick, well-balanced set of shoulders? The first step is to make sure you’re eating enough calories to build mass. Take a look at your diet, and add in a whey protein supplement to your regimen if necessary.

In the article below I will discuss the anatomy of the shoulder, its function, it’s location in the body, and some exercises for each area of the shoulder. Finally—and what you have been waiting for—I will include five of my favorite workout programs to help turn your baseball-sized shoulders into massive bowling balls of muscle.
The shoulders are the most widely used muscle in the upper body.


Anterior Head

Function: Flexion, Medial Rotation
Location: Front portion of the shoulder girdle
Exercise: Barbell Shoulder Press
Middle Head

Function: Abduction
Location: Middle/Side of the shoulder
Exercise: Dumbbell Side Laterals
Posterior Head

Function: Extension, Lateral Rotation
Location: Back of the shoulder
Exercise: Bent Over Dumbbell Rear Delt Raise With Head On Bench
Rep Ranges

What you can see from the anatomy information above is the shoulder is really made up of 3 different small muscle groups. Many beginners treat the shoulder as one muscle group, and train it like the chest: presses, presses and more presses. massive testo gnc

The only problem with this training approach is presses for the shoulders will heavily recruit the anterior head (front portion) with little work to the middle and posterior head (back portion) of the shoulder girdle. This builds a terrible imbalance and also can result in injury.

Without middle and posterior development the shoulders look narrow from both the front and the side. Many times injury is a result of imbalances like this. As a whole the shoulder is a moderate-sized muscle, it is made up of three small muscles. Each muscle should receive an adequate workload and nothing more.

The shoulder girdle can rotate almost 360 degrees, so exercises will be performed in many different angles with the use of free weights, machines and cables. I like to use a low (4-6) rep range with the compound pressing exercises and a moderate (8-12) rep range for all the isolation work.

All exercises should be performed in perfect form because bad form or habits that you start now will follow you and will lead to lack of progress—or worse, injury—in the future. Many if not all the exercises will be new to you. So make sure that you use the Exercise Guide on to help you with your form.

Now that you understand what muscles make up your shoulder, their function, their location, and the rep-range needed to stimulate them, let’s give you some workouts to help you build your shoulders.

Shoulder-Building Workout Programs

Workout 1
Barbell Shoulder Press
3 sets, 4-6 reps

One-Arm Side Laterals
3 sets, 12 reps

Front Plate Raise
3 sets, 12 reps (Hold 3 seconds at the top.)

Lying Rear Delt Raise
3 sets, 15 reps

Workout 2
Seated Side Lateral Raise
3 sets, 8-12 reps

3 sets, 4-6 reps

Reverse Flyes
3 sets, 12 reps

Side Lateral Raise
3 sets, 15 reps

Dumbbell shoulder press

Workout 3
Seated Bent-Over Rear Delt Raise
3 sets, 8-12 reps

Dumbbell Shoulder Press
3 sets, 4-6 reps

Standing Low-Pulley Deltoid Raise
3 sets, 8-12 reps

Barbell Rear Delt Row
3 sets, 12 reps

Workout 4
Arnold Dumbbell Press
3 sets, 6-8 reps

Bent Over Low-Pulley Side Lateral
3 sets, 12 reps

Lying One-Arm Lateral Raise
3 sets, 10 reps

Front Dumbbell Raise
3 sets, 12 reps

Workout 5
One-Arm Side Laterals
3 sets, 8 reps (Hold 3 seconds at the top.)

Standing Military Press
3 sets, 6-8 reps

Reverse Flyes
3 sets, 12 reps

Side Lateral Raise
3 sets, 15 reps


In 2005 I injured my right shoulder very badly; to the point where I needed surgery. I got the surgery. After I recovered I never thought I would be able to build big shoulders ever again. I am telling you this story for two reasons:

First, I was wrong; my shoulder did grow. After I put the injury behind me and decided enough was enough—I was not going to feel bad for myself anymore, and would work with what I had—I made amazing gains and put some great size on my shoulders.

Secondly, and most importantly, I injured my right shoulder because I was lifting with my ego. I want to make it clear to all beginner lifters; heavy weight training is great for stimulating growth, but only if used in perfect form.

Chest workouts

Does your chest resemble a sheet of plywood instead of the mountains of muscle you have always wanted? Do you spend countless hours on the bench press with no gains in size? Have you started to think that you were just not meant to have a big chest? Well, stop right there, you’re wrong …

I can’t promise you will ever have the chest of the great Arnold Schwarzenegger, but I can promise that you can make a difference to your chest and put some great size on it if you are willing to just hear me out.

In the article below, I will discuss the anatomy of the chest, its function and location in the body, and some exercises for each area of the chest. Finally, and what you have been waiting for, I will include five of my favorite workout programs to help turn your flat chest into massive slabs of muscle!

Chest Anatomy & Recommended Exercises

The chest is made up of two muscles that work together to make the chest function. The muscle are the pectoralis major and pectoralis minor. Basically, the pectoralis minor is located directly underneath the pectoralis major. Overall, these chest muscles start at the clavicle and insert at the sternum and the armpit area (humerous).

The three different functions of the chest muscles are the side arm pitching motion, the ability to bring your arm up and down at your sides, and the classic arm wresting motion. The basic recommended exercises for building up your chest include the bench press and flyes.
Chest Building Pointers

Though the chest is made up of one single mass of muscle, it should be trained like it was broken into 3 parts. The upper, middle and lower portions of the chest are stimulated best from changing the angle in which you execute the exercise.

The upper chest is best stimulated from exercises done on a 30-45% incline bench. For example incline barbell and dumbbell bench press or incline dumbbell flyes are great upper chest exercises.

The middle chest is best stimulated from exercises done on a flat bench. For example: flat barbell and dumbbell bench press or flat dumbbell flyes are great middle chest exercises.

The lower chest is best stimulated from exercises done on a 30-45% decline bench. For example: decline barbell and dumbbell bench press or decline dumbbell flyes are great lower chest exercises.

I find all areas of the chest respond best in the beginning to low (4-6) or moderate (8-12) rep ranges. Rarely, I will include higher rep ranges for beginners. I believe the heavier weight helps build a more solid foundation that beginners need. I also find that free weights should be your entire focus in the beginning, especially if chest is a weak point for you. The free weights just develop the chest a lot better than machines do, in my opinion.

Now that you understand about what muscles make up your chest, their function, location and the rep range needed to stimulate them, let’s give you some workouts to help you build your chest.

All exercises should be performed in perfect form because bad form or habits that you start now will follow you and will lead to lack of progress, or worse, future injury down the road. Many if not all the exercises will be new to you.

 My Favorite Chest Building Workout Programs

I use these five workouts to help bring up my chest. This has been a weak point for me because of a shoulder surgery back in 2005. I am using more weight now than when I started, but basic free weight workouts are the best for putting on the dense, thick muscle mass that you have always been searching for!

Take Home Message

I want you to pick one of the workouts above and use it for 4-6 weeks trying to increase the weight each workout (while still using perfect form), then rotate to a different chest workout and repeat the process.

Now comes the fun part, “It’s Chest Building Time.” You have your knowledge, and your workouts are laid out for you, so … “JUST GO LIFT.”

One: Upper Chest Day

Barbell Incline Bench Press Medium-Grip
3 sets, 4-6 reps

Incline Dumbbell Press
3 sets, 8 reps

Incline Dumbbell Flyes
3 sets, 8-12 reps

3 sets, 12 reps

Two: Middle Chest Day

Barbell Incline Bench Press Medium-Grip
3 sets, 4-6 reps

Incline Dumbbell Press
3 sets, 8 reps

Dumbbell Flyes
3 sets, 8-12 reps

3 sets, 12 reps

Three: Lower Chest Day
Decline Barbell Bench Press
3 sets, 4-6 reps

Decline Dumbbell Bench Press
3 sets, 8 reps

Decline Dumbbell Flyes
3 sets, 8-12 reps

3 sets, 12 reps

Four: Barbell Strength Day

Barbell Bench Press – Medium Grip
3 sets, 4-6 reps

Barbell Incline Bench Press Medium-Grip
3 sets, 4-6 reps


A strong neck can be a necessity in some high contact sports.

High contact sports, day-to-day living, and even pure cosmetic appeal – a strong neck can be useful.

I’m sure many of us have woken up in the morning with a stiff neck. Have you ever wondered why the pain is not only felt in the neck, but also can spread into the trapezius (traps) muscles, and the deltoids (shoulders)? All these muscles contribute to the neck area we refer to. As supporting muscle groups, these should also be trained to increase neck strength.

The most important thing to remember when getting into neck workouts is DO NOT try to lift beyond your physical limits. Sure, the same goes for workouts and exercises for any muscle group, but neck injuries are among the worst, and can cause the most inconvenience and pain.

Always start with adequate stretching before adding weighted resistance. Stretching your neck muscles will prepare your muscles for resistance, and can alone strengthen your neck. They are also important to monitor your range of motion.

If your range of motion is less than normal, do not force the movement or use resistance. Sometimes through various stretches you can increase your range of motion though. Consult your MD or DC for professional advice if you cannot.

Hold each of these stretches, at the point of tension, for at least 8 full seconds. Repeat at least twice.

This stretch involves the motion of bending the head downward, toward the floor. It is important your posture is straight and correct. In a normal range of motion, your chin should be able to touch your chest, without opening your jaw.

Tilting of the head, moving your ears toward your shoulders is the movement for this stretch. Be sure to keep your shoulders flat and do not lift them during this stretch. Normally, your head, while looking forward, should be at a rough 45-degree angle from your shoulders.

3 sets of 8-12 reps
Lying Face Down Plate Neck Resistance Lying Face Down Plate Neck Resistance
3 sets of 8-12 reps
Lying Face Up Plate Neck Resistance Lying Face Up Plate Neck Resistance
3 sets of 6-10 reps
Barbell Shrug Barbell Shrug
3 sets of 6-10 reps
Dumbbell Shrug Dumbbell Shrug
3 sets of 6-10 reps
Front Dumbbell Raise Front Dumbbell Raise
3 sets of 8-12 reps
Side Lateral Raise Side Lateral Raise

For the Traps exercises, I normally do these on a Back/Traps workout day, and perform the Delts exercises on my Chest/Shoulder day. Of course, the only “pure” neck exercises are the Lying Face Down Plate Neck Resistances and the Lying Face Up Plate Neck Resistances – which can easily be done on a typical “off” day, or throw the two exercises into another workout of yours.

Those 2 exercises can easily be performed at home with minimal equipment, so a trip to the gym isn’t always necessary. Also, the neck itself doesn’t need to be trained at high frequency, so you don’t have to have a neck workout every week either.

If you don’t workout on a regular basis, these exercises can all be performed in one workout – but remember do not go over your lifting ability, or too hard starting out – or you may end up with more neck pain you’re intending to prevent.

If you don’t have a preferred volume for your workouts, normally for isolation type exercises I like to maintain higher reps. Try keeping the volume for your neck exercises around 3 sets of 12 reps. As you progress, or based on your comfort level, you may add a set, increasing your volume.

How to gain muscle?

1. Follow a weight-lifting regimen that works different muscle groups on different days.
2. Allow yourself two days’ rest each week.
3. Eat a healthy diet filled with lean protein, healthy fats, and complex carbs.
4. Stay committed and be patient. Muscle takes time to build.
5. Remember: heavier weights with fewer reps are more effective than lighter weights with more reps.

Increase your caloric consumption. For example, if you are currently consuming 2,000 calories a day, boost that to about 2,500 calories or even more. But make sure that you’re eating clean, and are not eating too much.
Get enough protein to support muscle growth. Aim for between 1-1.8 grams of protein per kilogram of bodyweight. For example, if you weigh 180lb, take in at least 81-146g of protein every day.
One ounce (28 grams) of cooked meat contains roughly 7 grams of protein.[1] You could meet an 80 gram daily goal with two 6-oz. steaks, assuming no other protein sources.

Drink enough water. The body needs a sufficient amount of water to build muscle at an optimal rate. Here’s a great little formula to help make sure you are getting enough:[2]
Imperial units: Bodyweight in lbs X 0.6 = water intake in ounces.
The same formula in metric units: Bodyweight in kg x 40 = water intake in milliliters.
This includes all water from food and drink, not just glasses of water.
If you are over 30, you can lower these numbers to lbs x 0.46 to 0.54, or kg x 30 to 35.[3]
Eat regularly. Rather than having two or three large meals during the day—something we’ve grown up with—change your eating habits so that you are eating five or six smaller meals during the day.
To help keep your protein intake high, one or two of those meals can be a protein shake. Here’s one example, though a quick Internet search will uncover hundreds of delicious protein shakes:
8oz skimmed milk
1 banana
1 tbsp peanut butter
2 scoops of protein powder

Eat healthy fats. That’s right—not only does it make food taste good, fat is good for you, as long as you are eating the right kinds and amounts of fat! Saturated fats—the fat you’ll find in a stick of butter, a bag of chips, or bacon—should be limited to about 20g or less. That’s the bad news. The good news is that unsaturated fats are actually beneficial, even necessary. Fat is necessary for the proper distribution of vitamins A, D, E, and K, helps promote better eyesight, and healthy skin. Depending on your total caloric intake, 50-70g of monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fat is beneficial for your training, and your overall general health.
Monounsaturated fats can be found in olive, canola, and sesame oils; avocado; and nuts such as almonds, cashews, peanuts, and pistachios.
Polyunsaturated fats are found in corn, cottonseed, and safflower oils; sunflower seeds and oils; flaxseed and flaxseed oil; soybeans and soybean oil.
Omega-3 fats, an overall winner of a fat that is very beneficial to heart and blood health, eyesight, and for children, brain development. You’ll find this fat in many omega-3-enriched foods. Another great source is fatty cold-water fish such as salmon, tuna, trout, and sardines.
A good way to determine how much fat in grams you should be taking in is to multiply your calorie intake by 0.001 for maximum trans-fats; by 0.008 for maximum saturated fats; and by 0.03 for the “good fats”. For example, for a 2,500-calorie diet, you would limit trans-fats to 3g or less, saturated fats to 20g or less, and up to 75g of mono- and polyunsaturated fats.

Take your vitamins. In addition to a well-balanced diet, include a multivitamin supplement to your dietary regimen. It will ensure that your body is getting the full amount of vitamins and minerals it needs to stay healthy. There are many options, depending on your age, your sex, and your particular health and diet needs. Find the one that’s right for you, and make it part of your daily routine.
Exercise Guidelines

Build an effective exercise routine. A good diet is required for your body to be able to maximize your potential, but there’s no potential at all until you start the process of tearing down your old muscles and rebuilding them bigger, bulkier, and stronger. The best way to do that is to start at the beginning.

Warm up. Before you begin any exercise routine, whether it is a simple jog or a 300lb deadlift, start with a low-intensity routine designed.

How to build strong thighs?

Strengthening your leg muscles will make it easier for you to climb stairs, ride a bicycle, and even walk. And because your legs, especially your thighs, have so much muscle mass, building leg muscles through resistance training will help you burn calories even when you’re sitting still.

“Muscle can really burn a lot of calories,” says Michael J. Joyner, MD, a physiologist at the Mayo Clinic who studies exercise and aging. “When you have more muscle mass, your resting muscles burn more calories.”

Exercises for building leg muscles

Squats are the most common exercise for building the quadriceps and other large thigh muscles. But squats must be done carefully to avoid knee injury. The basic squat involves holding a barbell on your shoulders behind your neck and lowering your torso a few inches by bending your legs. Never go all the way down — that puts far too much strain on the knees.
Squats can be done without weights simply by standing with your back against the wall. Just lower yourself a few inches by bending your legs and stand up again. Never go all the way down into a crouch.

A safer way to do squats is with a squat machine that requires you to sit or lie with your feet against a platform connected to a stack of weights. When you push against the platform, you lift the weight. Never extend your legs so far that your knees lock because that could cause injury. Repeat this exercise 8 to 12 times, until your legs feel fatigued. When you can do more than 12 repetitions, increase the weight.
A thigh machine builds your thigh muscles by having you sit with your knees bent, feet locked behind a bar attached to a stack of weights. When you pull forward with your calves, the motion works all your thigh muscles. A similar machine exercises your hamstring muscles, on the back of your thighs. Lie stomach down on the bench and hook your heels under a bar. When you bend your legs and pull the bar upwards, you exercise the back of your legs.
The leg lunge is a safe and effective method of working the legs. Hold a dumbbell in each hand with your palms facing toward your body. Step forward with your arms at your sides, parallel to your body, and bend the knee of the forward leg, forcing it to bear the weight of your body. Return to your starting position and repeat with the other leg. Do this 8 to12 times with each leg. biogenic xr uk

To build your calf muscles, lift a barbell and hold it against your thighs, or hold a dumbbell in each hand with your arms hanging straight down at your sides. Lift your heels off the floor 8 to 12 times. Increase the weight of the barbell or dumbbell as you get stronger.

Building thick, strong legs does not come easy. So how do guys like Branch Warren and Mustafa Mohammad build such huge, freaky legs? Guys like Branch and Mustafa already have incredible genes in the first place which contributes to their amazing leg growth – as do heavy training and various shocking methods.

Their workouts would often leave the average trainee dripping in a pile of sweat afterwards. Their levels of intensity have elevated them to the top in terms of leg development. On the other end of the spectrum, there are too many people who don’t even train legs in the first place. Then there are those who show up to a leg workout scared of putting that 200 lb bar on their back. When you show up to a leg workout, you should think of it as an opportunity for growth of your entire body – not as a reason for being scared.

How to get six pack abs?

There’s no secret to developing your six pack. Check out these 6 nutrition and training tips to find out how you can succeed at your quest for six pack abs!

It seems like everywhere you look these days, you find website after website promising to reveal the next secret or long lost truth to getting six pack abs. While some of these sites are legitimate, most are just trying to scam you out of your hard earned money.

When trying to develop the ever so elusive six pack, it is easy to get caught up in flashy advertisements and marketing promises. The flashy videos, professionally written sales copy, and celebrity testimonials practically make it impossible to figure out what works and what is a scam.

With literally thousands of so-called gurus promising you the world, the task of translating the nonsense into language you can understand is a daunting one. Most people don’t have the time to sift through all of that junk to pick out a winner.

Here is the thing that many people, including a lot of trainers, overlook: diet. The single most important tool that you need in order to develop your abs is diet.

Regardless of what you’ve heard, or what the latest hyped up fat loss pill promised you, abs are made in the kitchen and not in the gym. You could have the best training program of all time, but if your diet sucks, so will your abs.

In fact, diet is responsible for about 90% of your results. The secret to six pack abs is not locked in a supplement pill or found in an ab workout or gadget.

Instead of falling for the empty promises, spend your time focusing on the things that matter, like solid nutrition principles, and leave the rest of the stuff alone.

Protein will help you build lean muscle as well as burn body fat. Out of all the macronutrients (protein, carbs, and fat) lean protein has the highest thermogenic effect on the body.

That makes it the most valuable macronutrient of all, because your body burns a ton of calories breaking it down.

This is one of the main reasons why professional athletes and competitive bodybuilders eat a diet that is high in lean protein and also have some of the best physiques on the planet! This goes for women also, not just men.

As we are all humans with basically the same DNA and tissues, we all need protein in order to survive and also to burn body fat!

Most people have been falsely led to believe that carbohydrates are bad and that they will make you fat. This is definitely a myth that needs to be busted!

Of course eating too much of anything will make you gain weight, but natural grain or starchy carbs such as sweet potatoes, brown rice, and oatmeal are actually quite beneficial in your six pack quest, especially when consumed post-workout. When you eat carbs post-workout, they have the smallest chance of turning into body fat.

Try to eat moderate amounts of carbs and 1-2 cups of vegetables with each meal. This will ensure that your body gets the vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, and fiber it needs to function at its peak and remain healthy.

Make sure you include healthy fats primarily from polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats such as raw nuts, nut butters, fish oils, and olive oils into your diet.

Make sure you include healthy fats primarily from polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats into your diet.

Dietary fat from these sources will keep your insulin levels stable, which is very important if your goal is to lose belly fat and reveal six pack abs. I am not saying to go out there and eat an entire bag of Planters Cashews.

I am simply saying that you do not need to be afraid to include healthy fats in your diet. With all of the so called “low fat diet” gurus out there and the huge amount of negative press about fats, it is easy to mistakenly believe that eliminating fats from your diet is good. But it is actually a dietary disaster, especially if you want a head turning physique.

By combining lean protein with the correct types and amounts of green leafy vegetables, good carbs, and fats you will begin to super charge your metabolism and turn your body into a 24-7 fat burning machine.

 Best Triceps Exercises You Can Add to Your Workout tricep workouts tricep workout

 Best Triceps Exercises You Can Add to Your Workout tricep workouts tricep workout
Do you want to lose weight, build muscle, or feel more fit? Join Beachbody On Demand, and get unlimited access to Beachbody’s world-famous programs, . Don’t miss out on your chance for amazing results.

When it comes to strengthening and building big triceps, no single exercise will do, because no single exercise hits every part of these complex muscles the same way.

“There’s a reason why each triceps muscle is referred to in the plural: It has three parts or ‘heads’—lateral, medial, and long,” explains Trevor Thieme, C.S.C.S., Beachbody’s senior manager of fitness and nutrition content. “All three contract every time you extend your elbow, but the angle of your arm determines which head is emphasized.”

That’s why you need to include a variety of exercises in your triceps workouts. “Different exercises focus on different parts of the muscle,” says Thieme.

Fortunately, there’s no shortage of effective triceps exercises. But to understand which of them you should add to your routine, it pays to dig a bit into the anatomy and function of the triceps muscle, and the three heads that comprise it.

Anatomy of the Triceps
The triceps makes up about two thirds of your upper-arm musculature, explains Elanit Friedman, NSCA-CPT, Beachbody’s director of fitness and wellness. So if you’re looking to sculpt a more muscular look, you can’t ignore them.

All three heads of the triceps fuse together and attach to the elbow via a single tendon, but the lateral and medial heads originate at the humerus (upper arm bone) near the shoulder while the long head originates at the scapula (shoulder blade). The lateral and long heads are the most visible ones, and form the classic “horseshoe” shape of the developed muscle (long head on the inside, lateral head on the outside). The medial head lies under the other two. “It doesn’t contribute much to the shape of the muscle, but it contributes significantly to its overall mass,” says Thieme.

Nutrition for Triceps Development
When working on developing the triceps muscle (or any other muscle, for that matter), you’d be remiss to not dial in your diet and increase your daily protein consumption.

“Like all muscles, the triceps need protein for repair and growth,” Thieme says, noting that consuming whey protein immediately after exercise is particularly effective at optimizing strength gains. Science agrees; a study in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition found that participants who drank a protein shake following strength trainingfor 12 weeks gained significantly more muscle than those who drank a placebo.

The optimal dose: Twenty grams (the amount contained in Beachbody Performance Recover), according to a recent review in the journal Frontiers in Physiology. Also consuming a nighttime protein supplement—like Beachbody Performance Recharge, which contains “slow release” casein protein—can help you build muscle during the overnight muscle-growth window that most people miss.

Rounding out the mass-maximizing nutrients, creatine has been scientifically shown to help boost muscle growth and strength, as well as fend off fatigue, so you can bang out additional reps. Creatine monohydrate (found in Beachbody Performance Creatine) is the least expensive and most effective form of the supplement.

Ready to build bigger, stronger tris? Start with these exercises from some of our most popular programs on Beachbody On Demand.

Beef Up Your Triceps Workouts: 11 Exercises You Can Do at Home
Hit your tris from all angles with these Beachbody-approved moves.

Triceps push-up

Appears in: Body Beast – Bulk Arms

Benefits: Your triceps muscles don’t work in isolation, but this equipment-free compound exercise zones in on them while also working your chest and core for overall upper-body strength and definition.

Assume a high plank position: Get on all fours with your feet together, your hands slightly narrower than shoulder-width, and your body straight from head to heels.
Brace your core and bend your elbows to lower your chest to within a few inches of the floor. Keep your head in line with your spine (i.e., look at the floor, not at the wall) and your elbows tucked.
Pause, and then push back up to the starting position.
Chair Dip

 Shoulders and Arms
Benefits: For this comprehensive triceps builder—which is effective for strength-training newbies and veterans alike—all you need is a chair and your own bodyweigh.


Hematology, also spelled haematology, is the branch of medicine concerned with the study of the cause, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases related to blood.[1] It involves treating diseases that affect the production of blood and its components, such as blood cells, hemoglobin, blood proteins, bone marrow, platelets, blood vessels, spleen, and the mechanism of coagulation. Such diseases might include hemophilia, blood clots, other bleeding disorders and blood cancers such as leukemia, multiple myeloma, and lymphoma. The laboratory work that goes into the study of blood is frequently performed by a medical technologist or medical laboratory scientist. Many hematologists work as hematologist-oncologists, also providing medical treatment for all types of cancer. The term is from the Greek αἷμα, haima meaning “blood,” and -λoγία meaning study.Hematology, also spelled haematology, is the branch of medicine concerned with the study of the cause, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases related to blood.[1] It involves treating diseases that affect the production of blood and its components, such as blood cells, hemoglobin, blood proteins, bone marrow, platelets,

blood vessels, spleen, and the mechanism of coagulation. Such diseases might include hemophilia, blood clots, other bleeding disorders and blood cancers such as leukemia, multiple myeloma, and lymphoma. The laboratory work that goes into the study of blood is frequently performed by a medical technologist or medical laboratory scientist. Many hematologists work as hematologist-oncologists, also providing medical treatment for all types of cancer. The term is from the Greek αἷμα, haima meaning “blood,” and -λoγία meaning study.
ases, although some may also work at the hematology laboratory viewing blood films and bone marrow slides under the microscope, interpreting various hematological test results and blood clotting test results. In some institutions, hematologists also manage the hematology laboratory. Physicians who work in hematology laboratories, and most commonly manage them, are pathologists specialized in the diagnosis of hematological diseases, referred to as hematopathologists or haematopathologists. Hematologists and hematopathologists generally work in conjunction to formulate a diagnosis and deliver the most appropriate therapy if needed. Hematology is a distinct subspecialty of internal medicine, separate from but overlapping with the subspecialty of medical oncology. Hematologists may specialize further or have special interests, for example, in:
treating bleeding disorders such as hemophilia and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpuratreating hematological malignancies such as lymphoma and leukemia (cancers)treating hemoglobinopathiesthe science of blood transfusion and the work of a blood bankbone marrow and stem cell transplantationTraining[edit]HematologistOccupationNames Medical SpecialistOccupation typeSpecialtyActivity sectorsMedicineDescriptionEducation requiredDoctor of Osteopathic Medicine (D.O.)Doctor of Medicine (M.D.)Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery (M.B.B.S.)Medical residencyFellowship (medicine)Fields

ofemploymentHospitals, ClinicsTo begin in this career, hematologists complete a four-year medical degree which is followed by three or four more years, depending on the person, in residency or internship programs. After completion, they further expand their knowledge of hematology by spending two or three more years learning how to experiment, diagnose, and treat blood disorders. When applying for this career, most job openings look for first hand practical experiences in a recognized training program that provides practice in the following: Cause of abnormalities in formation of blood and other disorders, diagnosis of numerous blood related conditions or cancers using experimentation, and the proper care and treatment of patients in the best manner.
Scope[edit]BloodVenous bloodVenipunctureHematopoiesisBlood testsCord bloodRed blood cellsErythropoiesisErythropoietinIron metabolismHemoglobinGlycolysisPentose phosphate pathwayWhite blood cellsPlateletsReticuloendothelial systemBone marrowSpleenLiverLymphatic systemBlood transfusionBlood plasmaBlood bankBlood donorsBlood groupsHemostasisCoagulationVitamin KComplement systemImmunoglobulins(abnormality of the hemoglobin molecule or of the rate of hemoglobin synthesis)
Anemias (lack of red blood cells or hemoglobin)Hematological malignanciesCoagulopathies (disorders of bleeding and coagulation)…Sickle Cell Anemia…thalassemiaTreatments

Treatments include:
Diet adviceOral medication – tablets or liquid medicinesAnticoagulation therapyIntramuscular injections (for example, vitamin B12 injections)Blood transfusion (for anemia)Platelet transfusionFresh Frozen Plasma transfusionCryoprecipitate transfusionVenesection also known as therepeutic phlebotomy (for iron overload or polycythemia)Bone marrow transplant (for example, for leukemia).

Kidney stone disease

Kidney stone disease, also known as urolithiasis, is when a solid piece of material (kidney stone) occurs in the urinary tract.[2] Kidney stones typically form in the kidney and leave the body in the urine stream. A small stone may pass without causing symptoms.[2] If a stone grows to more than 5 millimeters (0.2 in) it can cause blockage of the ureter resulting in severe pain in the lower back or abdomen.[2][7] A stone may also result in blood in the urine, vomiting, or painful urination.[2] About half of people will have another stone within ten years.[8]

Most stones form due to a combination of genetics and environmental factors.[2] Risk factors include high urine calcium levels, obesity, certain foods, some medications, calcium supplements, hyperparathyroidism, gout and not drinking enough fluids.[2][8] Stones form in the kidney when minerals in urine are at high concentration. The diagnosis is usually based on symptoms, urine testing, and medical imaging. Blood tests may also be useful. Stones are typically classified by their location: nephrolithiasis (in the kidney), ureterolithiasis (in the ureter), cystolithiasis (in the bladder), or by what they are made of (calcium oxalate, uric acid, struvite, cystine).[2]

In those who have had stones, prevention is by drinking fluids such that more than two liters of urine are produced per day. If this is not effective enough, thiazide diuretic, citrate, or allopurinol may be taken. It is recommended that soft drinks containing phosphoric acid (typically colas) be avoided.[4] When a stone causes no symptoms, no treatment is needed.[2] Otherwise pain control is usually the first measure, using medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or opioids.[7][9] Larger stones may be helped to pass with the medication tamsulosin[10] or may require procedures such as extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, ureteroscopy, or percutaneous nephrolithotomy.[2]

Between 1% and 15% of people globally are affected by kidney stones at some point in their life.[8] In 2015, 22.1 million cases occurred,[5] resulting in about 16,100 deaths.[6] They have become more common in the Western world since the 1970s.[8] Generally, more men are affected than women.[2] Kidney stones have affected humans throughout history with descriptions of surgery to remove them dating from as early as 600 BC.[1]

Signs and symptoms

Diagram showing the typical location of renal colic, below the rib cage to just above the pelvis
The hallmark of a stone that obstructs the ureter or renal pelvis is excruciating, intermittent pain that radiates from the flank to the groin or to the inner thigh.[11] This pain, known as renal colic, is often described as one of the strongest pain sensations known.[12] Renal colic caused by kidney stones is commonly accompanied by urinary urgency, restlessness, hematuria, sweating, nausea, and vomiting. It typically comes in waves lasting 20 to 60 minutes caused by peristaltic contractions of the ureter as it attempts to expel the stone.[11]

The embryological link between the urinary tract, the genital system, and the gastrointestinal tract is the basis of the radiation of pain to the gonads, as well as the nausea and vomiting that are also common in urolithiasis.[13] Postrenal azotemia and hydronephrosis can be observed following the obstruction of urine flow through one or both ureters.[14]

Pain in the lower left quadrant can sometimes be confused with diverticulitis because the sigmoid colon overlaps the ureter and the exact location of the pain may be difficult to isolate due to the close proximity of these two structures.

Risk factors
Dehydration from low fluid intake is a major factor in stone formation.[11][15] Obesity is a leading risk factor as well.

High dietary intake of animal protein,[11] sodium, refined sugars, fructose and high fructose corn syrup,[16] oxalate,[17] grapefruit juice, and apple juice may increase the risk of kidney stone formation.[15]

Kidney stones can result from an underlying metabolic condition, such as distal renal tubular acidosis,[18] Dent’s disease,[19] hyperparathyroidism,[20] primary hyperoxaluria,[21] or medullary sponge kidney. 3–20% of people who form kidney stones have medullary sponge kidney.[22][23]

respiratory system

The respiratory system (also respiratory apparatus, ventilatory system) is a biological system consisting of specific organs and structures used for gas exchange in animals and plants. The anatomy and physiology that make this happen varies greatly, depending on the size of the organism, the environment in which it lives and its evolutionary history. In land animals the respiratory surface is internalized as linings of the lungs.[1] Gas exchange in the lungs occurs in millions of small air sacs called alveoli in mammals and reptiles, but atria in birds. These microscopic air sacs have a very rich blood supply, thus bringing the air into close contact with the blood.[2] These air sacs communicate with the external environment via a system of airways, or hollow tubes, of which the largest is the trachea, which branches in the middle of the chest into the two main bronchi. These enter the lungs where they branch into progressively narrower secondary and tertiary bronchi that branch into numerous smaller tubes, the bronchioles. In birds the bronchioles are termed parabronchi. It is the bronchioles, or parabronchi that generally open into the microscopic alveoli in mammals and atria in birds. Air has to be pumped from the environment into the alveoli or atria by the process of breathing which involves the muscles of respiration.

In most fish, and a number of other aquatic animals (both vertebrates and invertebrates) the respiratory system consists of gills, which are either partially or completely external organs, bathed in the watery environment. This water flows over the gills by a variety of active or passive means. Gas exchange takes place in the gills which consist of thin or very flat filaments and lammelae which expose a very large surface area of highly vascularized tissue to the water.

Other animals, such as insects, have respiratory systems with very simple anatomical features, and in amphibians even the skin plays a vital role in gas exchange. Plants also have respiratory systems but the directionality of gas exchange can be opposite to that in animals. The respiratory system in plants includes anatomical features such as stomata, that are found in various parts of the plant.[3]
Main articles: Lung and Respiratory tract
. Respiratory system
The lower respiratory tract, or “Respiratory Tree”
Mainstem bronchus
Lobar bronchus
Segmental bronchus
Alveolar duct
In humans and other mammals, the anatomy of a typical respiratory system is the respiratory tract. The tract is divided into an upper and a lower respiratory tract. The upper tract includes the nose, nasal cavities, sinuses, pharynx and the part of the larynx above the vocal folds. The lower tract includes the lower part of the larynx, the trachea, bronchi, bronchioles and the alveoli.

The branching airways of the lower tract are often described as the respiratory tree or tracheobronchial tree [4] The intervals between successive branch points along the various branches of “tree” are often referred to as branching “generations”, of which there are, in the adult human about 23. The earlier generations (approximately generations 0–16), consisting of the trachea and the bronchi, as well as the larger bronchioles which simply act as air conduits, bringing air to the respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts and alveoli (approximately generations 17–23), where gas exchange takes place.[5][6] Bronchioles are defined as the small airways lacking and cartilagenous support.[4]

The first bronchi to branch from the trachea are the right and left main bronchi. Second only in diameter to the trachea (1.8 cm), these bronchi (1 -1.4 cm in diameter)[5] enter the lungs at each hilum, where they branch into narrower secondary bronchi known as lobar bronchi, and these branch into narrower tertiary bronchi known as segmental bronchi.